Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2013
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Vuzix Corporation (the Company) was formed in 1997 under the laws of the State of Delaware and maintains its corporate offices in Rochester, New York. The Company is engaged in the design, manufacture, marketing and sale of devices that are worn like eyeglasses and which feature built-in video screens that enable the user to view video and digital content, such as movies, computer data, the Internet or video games. Our products (known commercially as “Video Eyewear”) are used to view high resolution video and digital information from portable devices, such as cell phones, portable media players, gaming systems and laptop computers and from personal computers. Our products provide the user with a virtual viewing experience that emulates viewing a large screen television or desktop computer monitor practically anywhere, anytime.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Vuzix Europe and Vuzix Finland, OY. All significant inter-company transactions have been eliminated.
Segment Data, Geographic Information and Significant Customers
The Company is not organized by market and is managed and operated as one business. A single management team that reports to the chief operating decision maker comprehensively manages the entire business. The Company does not operate any material separate lines of business or separate business entities. Accordingly, the Company does not accumulate discrete information, other than product revenue and material costs, with respect to separate product lines and does not have separately reportable segments as defined by FASB ASC Topic 280, “Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information,”
Shipments to customers outside of the United States approximated 36% and 27% of sales in 2013 and 2012, respectively. No single international country represented more than 10% of revenues. The Company does not maintain significant amounts of long-lived assets outside of the United States other than tooling held by its third party manufacturers, primarily in China.
The Company has at times had a concentration of sales to the U.S. government, the majority of which was reported as discontinued operations and they amounted to approximately 17% and 11% of sales in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Accounts receivable from the U.S. government accounted for 79% and -0-% of accounts receivable at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Another customer, who is also a minority stockholder, represented -0-% and 10% of our total revenues, all of which was reported as sales from discontinued operations in 2012.
Foreign Currency Transactions
The U.S. dollar is the functional currency of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries. Gains and losses arising upon settlement of foreign currency denominated transactions or balances are included in the determination of income.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at year end and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and maintains an allowance for uncollectible accounts receivable based upon the expected collectability of all accounts receivable.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company’s cash received is applied against its revolving line of credit on a periodic basis based on projected monthly cash flows, reducing interest expense. Cash and cash equivalents can include highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments primarily consists of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, inventories, prepaid expenses and other assets, accounts payable, lines of credit, current portion of long-term debt and capital leases, customer deposits, accrued expenses, and income taxes payable.
As of the consolidated balance sheet date, the estimated fair values of the financial instruments were not materially different from their carrying values as presented due to the short maturities of these instruments and that the interest rates on the borrowing approximate those that would have been available for loans for similar remaining maturity and risk profiles at respective year ends.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company establishes an allowance for uncollectible trade accounts receivable based on the age of outstanding invoices and management’s evaluation of collectability of outstanding balances. These provisions are established when the aging of outstanding amounts exceeds allowable terms and are re-evaluated at each quarter end for adequacy. In determining the adequacy of the provision, the Company considers known uncollectible or at risk receivables.
Provision for Future Warranty Costs
Warranty costs are accrued, to the extent that they are not recoverable from third party manufacturers, for the estimated cost to repair or replace products for the balance of the warranty periods. The Company’s products are covered by standard warranty plans that extend normally 12 months to 24 months from the date of product shipment. The Company provides for the costs of expected future warranty claims at the time of product shipment or over-builds to cover replacements. The adequacy of the provision is assessed at each quarter end and is based on historical experience of warranty claims and costs.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost, or market using the first-in, first-out method. The Company does include direct overhead costs in its inventory valuation costing. The Company records provisions for excess, obsolete or slow moving inventory based on changes in customer demand, technology developments or other economic factors. The Company’s products have product life cycles that range on average from two to three years currently. At both the product introduction and product discontinuation stage, there is a higher degree of risk of inventory obsolescence. The provision for obsolete and excess inventory is evaluated for adequacy at each quarter end. The estimate of the provision for obsolete and excess inventory is partially based on expected future product sales, which are difficult to forecast for certain products.
Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue from product sales in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 605 “Revenue Recognition. Product sales represent the majority of the Company’s revenue. The Company recognizes revenue from these product sales when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been provided, the sale price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. Additionally, the Company sells its products on terms which transfer title and risk of loss at a specified location, typically shipping point. Accordingly, revenue recognition from product sales occurs when all factors are met, including transfer of title and risk of loss, which typically occurs upon shipment by the Company. If these conditions are not met, the Company will defer revenue recognition until such time as these conditions have been satisfied. The Company collects and remits sales taxes in certain jurisdictions and reports revenue net of any associated sales taxes. The Company also sells certain products through distributors who are granted limited rights of return for stock balancing against purchases made within a prior 90 day period, including price adjustments downwards that the Company implements on any existing inventory. The provision for product returns and price adjustments is assessed for adequacy both at the time of sale and at each quarter end and is based on recent historical experience and known customer claims.
Revenue from any engineering consulting and other services is recognized at the time the services are rendered. The Company accounts for its longer-term development contracts, which to date have all been firm fixed-priced contracts, on the percentage-of-completion method, whereby income is recognized as work on contracts progresses, but estimated losses on contracts in progress are charged to operations immediately. The percentage-of-completion is determined using the cost-to-cost method. Amounts are generally billed on a monthly basis. To date all such contracts have been less than one calendar year in duration.
The Company recognizes software license revenue under ASC 985-605 “Software Revenue Recognition” and under ASC 605-25 “Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables”, and related interpretations, as amended. Licensed software may be sold as a stand-alone element, with other software elements, or in conjunction with hardware products. When the Company’s products consists of more than one element, it is considered to be a multiple element arrangement (MEA). When sold as a stand-alone element, the revenue is recognized upon shipment as discussed above. When sold as part of a MEA, revenue from the licensed software is recognized when the product and embedded software is shipped to the customer.
For either a single element transaction or a MEA, the Company allocates consideration to all deliverables based on their relative stand-alone selling prices. Amendments to ASC 605-25, which became effective January 1, 2011, establish a hierarchy to determine the stand-alone selling price as follows:
Vendor Specific Objective Evidence of the fair value (VSOE),
Third Party Evidence (TPE)
Best Estimate of the Selling Price (ESP)
Sales which constitute a MEA are accounted for by determining if the elements can be accounted for as separate accounting units, and if so, by applying values to those units, per the hierarchy above. If VSOE is not available, management estimates the fair selling price using historical pricing for similar items, in conjunction with current pricing and discount policies.
Revenue from licensed software is recognized upon shipment and in accordance with industry-specific software recognition accounting guidance. Software updates that will be provided free of charge are evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine whether they meet the definition of an upgrade and create a multiple element arrangement. The consideration allocated to the unspecified software upgrade rights and non-software services is deferred and recognized rateably over the 24-month estimated life of the devices. The Company’s BESP for the unspecified software upgrade right and non-software services is $25 per unit for the M100 Smart Glass.
Fees charged to customers for post-contract Technical Support are recognized ratably over the term of the contract. Costs related to maintenance obligations are expensed as incurred.
Tooling and Equipment
Tooling and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation of tooling and equipment is provided for using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Computers and Software
3 years
Manufacturing Equipment
5 years
3 years
Furniture and Equipment
5 years
Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Asset betterments are capitalized.
Patents and Trademarks
The Company capitalizes the costs of obtaining its patents and registration of Trademarks. Such costs are accumulated and capitalized during the filing periods, which can take several years to complete. Successful applications that result in the granting of a patent or trademark are then amortized over 15 years on a straight-line basis. Unsuccessful applications are written off and expensed in the fiscal period where the application is abandoned or discontinued.
Software Development Costs
The Company capitalizes the costs of obtaining its software once technological feasibility has been determined by management. Such costs are accumulated and capitalized and projects can take several years to complete. Unsuccessful or discontinued software projects are written off and expensed in the fiscal period where the application is abandoned or discontinued. Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a computer software product are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product. Once technological feasibility is established, all software costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Judgment is required in determining when technological feasibility of a product is established. Generally, this occurs shortly before the products are released to manufacturing. The amortization of these costs is included in cost of revenue over the estimated life of the products, which currently is estimated as 3 years using a straight-line basis.  
Long-Lived Assets
The Company regularly assesses all of its long-lived assets for impairment when events or circumstances indicate their carrying amounts may not be recoverable, in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360-10, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets.” In 2013, an impairment charge of $73,423 was recorded related to abandoned patents and trademarks. In 2012, an impairment charge of $64,703 was recorded related to abandoned patents and trademarks.
Research and Development
Research and development costs, are expensed as incurred consistent with the guidance of FASB ASC Topic 730, “Research and Development,” and include employee related costs, office expenses, third party design and engineering services, and new product prototyping costs. Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a computer software product are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Amounts charged to customers and costs incurred by the Company related to shipping and handling are included in net sales and cost of goods sold, respectively, in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 605-45, “Revenue Recognition – Principal Agent Consideration”, “Accounting for Shipping and Handling Fees and Costs.”
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and recorded in “Selling and Marketing” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 amounted to $231,552 and $253,815, respectively. These amounts are inclusive of $4,500 in 2012 that are included in Discontinued Operations.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740-10, “Income Taxes.” Accordingly, the Company provides deferred income tax assets and liabilities based on the estimated future tax effects of differences between the financial and tax bases of assets and liabilities based on currently enacted tax laws. A valuation allowance is established for deferred tax assets in amounts for which realization is not considered more likely than not to occur.
The Company reports any interest and penalties accrued relating to uncertain income tax positions as a component of the income tax provision.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net (loss) income less accrued dividends on any outstanding preferred stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share calculations reflect the assumed exercise of all dilutive employee stock options and warrants applying the treasury stock method promulgated by FASB ASC Topic 260, “Earnings Per Share” and the conversion of any outstanding convertible preferred shares or notes payable that are-in-the-money, applying the as-if-converted method. However, if the assumed exercise of stock options and warrants and the conversion of any preferred shares or convertible notes payable are anti-dilutive, basic and diluted earnings per share are the same for all periods. 
Stock-Based Employee Compensation
The Company accounts for share-based compensation to employees and directors in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718 “Compensation Stock Expense,” which requires that compensation expense be recognized in the consolidated financial statements for share-based awards based on the grant-date fair value using a Black-Scholes valuation model of those awards. The Company uses the fair market value of our common stock on the date of each option grant based on market price of the Company’s common shares on the TSX Venture Exchange and since August 5, 2013 on the OTCQB. Stock-based compensation expense includes an estimate of forfeitures and is recognized over the requisite service periods of the awards on a straight-line or graded vesting basis, which is generally commensurate with the vesting term. As a result of the adoption of FASB ASC Topic 718, stock-based compensation expense associated with stock option grants for the years ending December 31, 2013 and 2012 was $159,272 and $172,233, respectively.
The Company issues new shares upon stock option exercises. Please refer to Note 22, Stock Option Plans, for further information.
Derivative Liability and Fair Value Measurements
The Company has adopted the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” as of January 1, 2008 for financial instruments. This standard defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in generally accepted accounting principles, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 clarifies that fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. ASC 820 permits an entity to measure certain financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings each period. In accordance with ASC 815-10-25, we measured the derivative liability using a Lattice pricing model at their issuance date and subsequently they are remeasured. Accordingly, at the end of each quarterly reporting date the derivative fair market value is remeasured and adjusted to current market value. Derivatives that have more than one year remaining in their life are shown as long term derivative liabilities.
ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. Level 1 inputs are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability. Such inputs include quoted prices in active markets for similar assets and liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, or inputs derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability. Such inputs are used to measure fair value when observable inputs are not available.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2011, the FASB issued new guidance which requires enhanced disclosures on offsetting amounts within the balance sheet, including disclosing gross and net information about instruments and transactions eligible for offset or subject to a master netting or similar agreement. The guidance is effective for the company beginning January 1, 2013 and is to be applied retrospectively. The adoption of this guidance, which is related to disclosure only, did not have an impact on the company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
There are no other recent accounting pronouncements that are expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.