Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Vuzix Corporation (the Company) was formed in 1997 under the laws of the State of Delaware and maintains its corporate offices in Rochester, New York. We are engaged in the design, manufacture, marketing and sale of augmented reality wearable display and computing devices also referred to as head mounted displays (or HMDs, but also known as near-eye displays), in the form of Smart Glasses and Augmented Reality (AR) glasses. Our AR wearable display devices are worn like eyeglasses or attach to a head worn mount. These devices typically include cameras, sensors, and a computer that enable the user to view, record and interact with video and digital content, such as computer data, the Internet, social media or entertainment applications. Our wearable display products integrate micro-display technology with our advanced optics to produce compact high-resolution display engines, less than half an inch diagonally, which when viewed through our smart glasses products create virtual images that appear comparable in size to that of a computer monitor or a large-screen television. The wearable display products we produce can be used for a variety of enterprise and commercial users and applications, including AR for on-the-go users and as mobile displays for entertainment and social media use. Our products are available with varying features and are offered as monocular display systems.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Vuzix Europe Limited. All significant inter-company transactions have been eliminated. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to be consistent with current year presentation.
Segment Data, Geographic Information and Significant Customers
The Company is not organized by market and is managed and operated as one business. A single management team that reports to the chief operating decision maker comprehensively manages the entire business. The Company does not operate any material separate lines of business or separate business entities. Accordingly, the Company does not accumulate discrete information, other than product revenue and material costs, with respect to separate product lines and does not have separately reportable segments as defined by FASB ASC Topic 280, “Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information”.
Refer to Note 18 — Geographic and Other Financial Information (Unaudited).
Foreign Currency Transactions
The Company considers the US dollar as the functional currency of the Company’s UK Subsidiary. The Company’s UK Subsidiary transacts in Euros and British pounds. All transactions in foreign currencies are recorded in US dollars at the then current exchange rate(s). Upon settlement of the underlying transaction, all amounts are re-measured to US dollars at the current exchange rate on date of settlement. All unsettled foreign currency transactions that remain in accounts receivable and trade account payables are re-measured to US dollars at the period end exchange rates. All re-measurement gains and losses are recorded in the current period net income.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at year-end and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts, which at times may exceed federally insured limits.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents can include highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, notes receivable, accounts payable, customer deposits, accrued expenses, and income taxes payable. As of the consolidated balance sheet dates, the estimated fair values of the financial instruments were not materially different from their carrying values as presented due to the short maturities of these instruments.
The Company carries its trade accounts receivable at invoice amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company establishes an allowance for uncollectible trade accounts receivable based on the age of outstanding invoices and management’s evaluation of collectability of outstanding balances. These provisions are established when the aging of outstanding amounts exceeds allowable terms and are re-evaluated at each quarter end for adequacy. In determining the adequacy of the provision, the Company considers known uncollectible or at-risk receivables. The allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 was nil and $7,280, respectively. The Company does not accrue interest on any past due accounts receivable unless such receivable goes into collection.
On December 17, 2019, the Company provided a one-year convertible promissory note to a confidential strategic business partner for $250,000. The note carries an interest rate of 8%, compounded monthly. The principal and accrued interest become due and payable to the Company on November 15, 2020. The note contains mandatory and automatic conversions of principal and accrued interest into equity upon on the occurrence of a triggering event at a pre-defined conversion price range. The pre-defined conversion price range if triggered, would result in the Company owning 1 to 2.5% of this entity.
Foxconn Technology Group, or Foxconn (f/k/a Toshiba Japan) represented 16% of total product revenue and one confidential defense customer represented 100% of engineering services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019. Foxconn, SATS Airport Services Pte Ltd and AMA SA represented 17%, 10% and 10% of our total revenues in 2018, respectively. Foxconn represented 18% of our total revenue in 2017.
Ubimax GmbH, Foxconn and a confidential defense customer represented 32%, 26% and 13%, respectively, of accounts receivable at December 31, 2019. Foxconn and SATS represented 32% and 38%, respectively, of accounts receivable at December 31, 2018. Foxconn represented 25% of accounts receivable and 100% of accrued project revenues at December 31, 2017.
Accrued Project Revenue
The Company carries accrued project revenue based on the percentage of completion on the project measured using the input method based upon costs incurred to-date as a percentage of total expected costs to complete the project less amounts invoiced, if any. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had nil in accrued project revenue.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the weighted average first-in, first-out method. The Company includes labor and overhead costs in its inventory valuation costing. The Company records provisions for excess, obsolete or slow-moving inventory based on changes in customer demand, technology developments or other economic factors. The Company’s products have product life cycles that range on average from two to three years currently. At both the product introduction and product discontinuation stage, there is a higher degree of risk of inventory obsolescence. The provision for obsolete and excess inventory is evaluated for adequacy at each quarter end. The estimate of the provision for obsolete and excess inventory is partially based on expected future product sales, which are difficult to forecast for certain products.
The Company adopted the new guidance on Revenue from Contracts with Customers under FASB ASC Topic 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers", as of January 1, 2018. Refer to Note 2 for further discussion on the impact of this adoption. Product sales represent the majority of the Company’s revenue. The Company recognizes revenue from these product sales as performance obligations are satisfied and transfer of control and ownership to the customer has occurred, typically upon physical shipment. Revenue is recognized in the amount that the Company expects to receive in exchange from the sale of our products. FOB shipping point is our standard shipping terms and revenue is recognized as our products ship to customers, as control and ownership are transferred at this point in time. All of our standard products sales include a 30‑day money back guarantee and expected returns are estimated at each reporting period date and a portion of revenue is deferred for all estimated returns. As of December 31, 2019, deferred revenue associated with our expected returns was immaterial. The Company collects and remits sales taxes in certain jurisdictions and reports revenue net of any associated sales taxes.
Revenue from any engineering consulting and other services is recognized at the time the services are rendered. The Company accounts for its longer-term development contracts, which to date have all been firm fixed-priced contracts, on the percentage-of-completion method, whereby income is recognized as work on contracts progresses, but estimated losses on contracts in progress are charged to operations immediately. The percentage-of-completion is determined using the cost-to-cost method. To date, all such contracts have been less than one calendar year in duration.
These amounts represent deferred revenue against unfulfilled performance obligations such as extended product warranty sales and sales of our Vuzix Basic Video applications, which are amortized over a twelve (12) month period.
Customer deposits represent money the Company has received in advance of providing a product or engineering services to a customer. All such deposits are short term in nature as the Company typically delivers the product or engineering services provided to the customer within one year. These deposits are credited to the customer against product deliveries or at the completion of the customer’s order. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had nil and $152,362 in outstanding customer deposits.
Cost of Product Revenues
Cost of product revenue includes the direct and allocated indirect costs of products sold to customers. Direct costs include labor, materials, reserves for estimated warranty expenses, and other costs incurred directly, or charged to us by our contract manufacturers in the manufacture of these products. Indirect costs include labor, manufacturing overhead, and other costs associated with operating our manufacturing facility and capacity. Manufacturing overhead includes the costs of procuring, inspecting and storing material, facility and other costs, and is allocated to cost of product revenue based on the proportion of indirect labor which supported production activities. Depreciation on manufacturing tools and equipment is included in Operating Expenses in our consolidated statement of operations. The cost of product revenue can fluctuate significantly from period to period, depending on the product mix and volume, the level of manufacturing overhead expense and the volume of direct material purchased.
Cost of Engineering Services Revenues
Cost of engineering services revenues includes both the direct and allocated indirect costs of performing on contracts and producing prototype units. Direct costs include labor, materials and other costs incurred directly in performing under the contract. Direct costs also include labor and other costs associated with operating our research and development department based on the level of effort supporting the development activity. Cost of contract revenue is determined by the level of direct and indirect costs incurred, which can fluctuate substantially from period to period.
Fixed assets are stated at cost. Depreciation of fixed assets is provided for using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Asset betterments are capitalized and depreciated over their expected useful life.
Patents and Trademarks
The Company capitalizes the costs of obtaining its patents and registration of trademarks. Such costs are accumulated and capitalized during the filing periods, which can take several years to complete. Successful applications that result in the granting of a patent or trademark are then amortized over 15 years on a straight-line basis. Unsuccessful applications are written off and expensed in the fiscal period where the application is abandoned or discontinued.
Software Development Costs
The Company capitalizes the costs of obtaining or developing its software once technological feasibility has been determined by management. Such costs are accumulated and capitalized. Projects can take several years to complete. Unsuccessful or discontinued software projects are written off and expensed in the fiscal period when the software development effort is abandoned or discontinued. Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a computer software product are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product. Once technological feasibility is established, all software costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Judgment is required in determining when technological feasibility of a product is established. Once the product is available for general release, accumulated costs are amortized over the life of the asset. The amortization of these costs is included in cost of revenue over the estimated life of the products, which currently is estimated as three years using a straight-line basis. As of December 31, 2019, we had $100,000 of net software development costs included in Other Assets. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, there was nil and $196,223, respectively in software impairment costs.
The Company capitalizes the costs of acquiring licenses and prepaid royalties. They are amortized on either a per unit basis or straight line over the life of the license. In some cases, future royalties are subject to annual limits.
The Company at least annually assesses all of its long-lived assets for impairment when events or circumstances indicate their carrying amounts may not be recoverable, in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360‑10, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets.” There was no impairment charge in 2019, 2018 and 2017.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred consistent with the guidance of FASB ASC Topic 730, “Research and Development,” and include employee related costs, office expenses, third-party design and engineering services, and new product prototyping costs. Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a computer software product are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Amounts charged to customers and costs incurred by the Company related to shipping and handling are included in net sales and cost of sales, respectively.
Provision for Future Warranty Costs
The Company provides for the estimated returns under warranty and the costs of fulfilling our obligations under product warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized. The Company estimates the costs based on historical and projected product failure rates, historical and projected repair costs, and knowledge of specific product failures (if any). The specific warranty terms and conditions vary depending upon the country in which we do business, but generally include parts and labor over a period generally ranging from one to two years from the date of product shipment. The Company provides a reserve for expected future warranty returns at the time of product shipment or produces over-builds to cover replacements. We regularly reevaluate our estimates to assess the adequacy of the recorded warranty liabilities and adjust the amounts as necessary each quarter end, based on historical experience of warranty claims and costs.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and recorded in “Selling and Marketing” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was $1,302,120, $1,631,161 and $1,386,977, respectively.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740‑10, “Income Taxes.” Accordingly, the Company provides deferred income tax assets and liabilities based on the estimated future tax effects of differences between the financial and tax bases of assets and liabilities based on currently enacted tax laws. A valuation allowance is established for deferred tax assets in amounts for which realization is not considered more likely than not to occur.
The Company reports any interest and penalties accrued relating to uncertain income tax positions as a component of the income tax provision.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net income (loss) less accrued dividends on any outstanding preferred stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share calculations reflect the assumed exercise of all dilutive employee stock options and warrants applying the treasury stock method promulgated by FASB ASC Topic 260, “Earnings Per Share” and the conversion of any outstanding convertible preferred shares or notes payable that are-in-the-money, applying the as-if-converted method. However, if the assumed exercise of stock options and warrants and the conversion of any preferred shares or convertible notes payable are anti-dilutive, basic and diluted earnings per share are the same for all periods. As a result of the net losses generated in 2019, 2018 and 2017, all outstanding instruments would be antidilutive. As of December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, there were 12,858,707, 8,742,183 and 7,657,756 common stock share equivalents, respectively, that were potentially issuable under convertible debt agreements, options, conversion of preferred shares (excluding accrued dividends), and warrants that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation to employees and directors in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718 “Compensation - Stock Compensation,” which requires that compensation expense be recognized in the consolidated financial statements for stock-based awards based on the grant date fair value. For stock option awards, the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model was used to estimate the fair value of share-based awards under FASB ASC Topic 718. The Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model incorporates various and highly subjective assumptions, including expected term and share price volatility. The expected term of options granted was estimated to be the average of the vesting term, historical exercise and forfeiture rates, and the contractual life of the option. The share price volatility at the grant date is estimated using historical stock prices based upon the expected term of the options granted. The risk-free interest rate assumption is determined using the rates for U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds with maturities similar to those of the expected term of the award being valued.
For common stock awards, the Company uses the fair market value of our common stock on the date of each stock-based award based on the market price of the Company’s common shares and the expense related to these awards is recognized over the requisite service period of the awards on a straight-line or graded vesting basis, which is generally commensurate with the vesting term. Stock-based compensation expense associated with stock awards and stock option grants for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was $1,498,357, $2,197,481 and $1,623,272, respectively. The Company issues new shares upon stock option exercises.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Our lease agreements generally contain lease and non-lease components. Historically, non-lease components such as utilities have been immaterial. Payments under our lease arrangements are primarily fixed. Lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the present value of the future lease payments at the lease commencement date. The interest rate used to determine the present value of the future lease payments is our incremental borrowing rate, because the interest rate implicit in our leases is not readily determinable. Our incremental borrowing rate is estimated to approximate the interest rate on a collateralized basis with similar terms and payments, and in economic environments where the leased asset is located. Our lease terms include periods under options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option.
As of December 31, 2019, all of our leases are considered operating leases. Operating right of use assets and liabilities are included on our Consolidated Balance Sheets beginning January 1, 2019. The Company does not have any finance leases as of December 31, 2019.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326). ASU 2016-13 provides for a new impairment model which requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments, including but not limited to accounts receivable. ASU 2016-13 will become effective for the Company on January 1, 2023 and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not anticipate the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef