Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Vuzix Corporation (the Company) was formed in 1997 under the laws of the State of Delaware and maintains its corporate offices in Rochester, New York. The Company is engaged in the design, manufacture, marketing and sale of wearable display devices, that are generally worn like eyeglasses, and are also referred to as head mounted displays (or HMDs), in the form of Augmented Reality (AR) glasses and Smart Glasses. Our wearable display products provide virtual large high-resolution screens, fit in a user’s pocket or purse and can be viewed practically anywhere, anytime. We produce and sell two main types of wearable display products: Smart Glasses for a variety of enterprise and commercial users and applications, including AR; and Video Viewing glasses, for on-the-go users as mobile displays for entertainment and social media use. Our products are available with varying features, including with and without applications running computer processors, and are offered as either monocular or binocular display systems.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, Vuzix Europe. All significant inter-company transactions have been eliminated. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to be consistent with current year presentation.
Segment Data, Geographic Information and Significant Customers
The Company is not organized by market and is managed and operated as one business. A single management team that reports to the chief operating decision maker comprehensively manages the entire business. The Company does not operate any material separate lines of business or separate business entities. Accordingly, the Company does not accumulate discrete information, other than product revenue and material costs, with respect to separate product lines and does not have separately reportable segments as defined by FASB ASC Topic 280, “Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information”.
Refer to Note 17 — Geographic Financial Information, Significant Customers and other financial information.
Foreign Currency Transactions
The British Pound is the functional currency of the Company’s foreign subsidiary. Transactions are recorded at the functional currency of each subsidiary. Gains and losses arising upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in the determination of net loss. The financial statements of the foreign subsidiary are translated to the US dollar at each reporting date. The cumulative translation adjustment at December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 was not material, as well as from inception of UK subsidiary.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at year end and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. 
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts, which at times may exceed federally insured limits.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents can include highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments primarily consists of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, long-term debt, customer deposits, accrued expenses, and income taxes payable.
As of the consolidated balance sheet dates, the estimated fair values of the financial instruments were not materially different from their carrying values as presented due to both the short maturities of these instruments and that the interest rates on borrowing approximate those that would have been available for loans for similar remaining maturity and risk profiles.
Accounts Receivable
The Company carries its trade accounts receivable at invoice amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company establishes an allowance for uncollectible trade accounts receivable based on the age of outstanding invoices and management’s evaluation of collectability of outstanding balances. These provisions are established when the aging of outstanding amounts exceeds allowable terms and are re-evaluated at each quarter end for adequacy. In determining the adequacy of the provision, the Company considers known uncollectible or at risk receivables. There was an allowance of $29,960 as of December 31, 2017. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2016. The Company does not accrue interest on a past due accounts receivable unless it goes into collection.
Accrued Project Revenue
The Company carries its accrued project revenue based on the percentage of completion on the project measured using the input method based upon costs incurred to-date as a percentage of total expected costs to complete the project.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the weighted average first-in, first-out method. The Company includes labor and overhead costs in its inventory valuation costing. The Company records provisions for excess, obsolete or slow moving inventory based on changes in customer demand, technology developments or other economic factors. The Company’s products have product life cycles that range on average from two to three years currently. At both the product introduction and product discontinuation stage, there is a higher degree of risk of inventory obsolescence. The provision for obsolete and excess inventory is evaluated for adequacy at each quarter end. The estimate of the provision for obsolete and excess inventory is partially based on expected future product sales, which are difficult to forecast for certain products.
Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue from product sales in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 605 “Revenue Recognition. Product sales represent the majority of the Company’s revenue. The Company recognizes revenue from these product sales when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the sale price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company sells its products on terms which transfer title and risk of loss at a specified location, typically shipping point. Accordingly, revenue recognition from product sales occurs when all factors are met. If these conditions are not met, the Company will defer revenue recognition until such time as these conditions have been satisfied. The Company collects and remits sales taxes in certain jurisdictions and reports revenue net of any associated sales taxes. The Company also sells certain products through distributors who are granted limited rights of return for stock balancing against purchases made within a prior 90 day period, including downward price adjustments that the Company implements on any existing inventory. The provision for product returns and price adjustments is assessed for adequacy both at the time of sale and at each quarter end and is based on recent historical experience and known customer claims and was not material as of December 31, 2017, 2016 or 2015.
Revenue from any engineering consulting and other services is recognized at the time the services are rendered. The Company accounts for its longer-term development contracts, which to date have all been firm fixed-priced contracts, on the percentage-of-completion method, whereby income is recognized as work on contracts progresses, but estimated losses on contracts in progress are charged to operations immediately. The percentage-of-completion is determined using the cost-to-cost method. To date, all such contracts have been less than one calendar year in duration.
The Company recognizes software license revenue under ASC 985-605 “Software Revenue Recognition” and under ASC 605-25 “Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables”, and related interpretations, as amended.
Licensed software may be sold as a stand-alone element, with other software elements, or in conjunction with hardware products. When the Company’s products consist of more than one element, the product is considered to be a multiple element arrangement (MEA). When sold as a stand-alone element, the revenue is recognized upon shipment as discussed above. When sold as part of a MEA, revenue from the licensed software is recognized when the product with this embedded software is shipped to the customer.
For either a single element transaction or a MEA, the Company allocates consideration to all deliverables based on their relative stand-alone selling prices. Amendments to ASC 605-25 establish a hierarchy to determine the stand-alone selling price as follows:
Vendor Specific Objective Evidence of the fair value (VSOE);
Third Party Evidence (TPE); and
Best Estimate of the Selling Price (BESP)
Sales which constitute a MEA are accounted for by determining if the elements can be accounted for as separate accounting units, and if so, by applying values to those units, per the hierarchy above. If VSOE is not available, management estimates the fair selling price using historical pricing for similar items, in conjunction with current pricing and discount policies.
Revenue from licensed software is recognized upon shipment and in accordance with industry-specific software recognition accounting guidance. Software updates that will be provided free of charge are evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine whether they meet the definition of an upgrade and create a multiple element arrangement. The consideration allocated to the unspecified software upgrade rights and non-software services is deferred and recognized ratably over the 24-month estimated life of the devices. The Company’s BESP for the unspecified software upgrade right and non-software services is $25 per unit for the M300 and M100 Smart Glass and had been $40 for M100 software developer kits, which became free in Fall 2015 and therefore no new amounts are being deferred related to developer kits.
Refer to Recent Accounting Pronouncements later in this Note for the expected future impact of updated FASB accounting guidance.
Unearned Revenue
These amounts represent deferred revenue against unfulfilled deliverables of multiple-element products, including unspecified post-delivery support and software updates.
Cost of Product Revenues
Cost of product revenue includes the direct and allocated indirect costs of products sold to customers. Direct costs include labor, materials, reserves for estimated warranty expenses, and other costs incurred directly, or charged to us by our contract manufacturers in the manufacture of these products. Indirect costs include labor, manufacturing overhead, and other costs associated with operating our manufacturing capabilities and capacity. Manufacturing overhead includes the costs of procuring, inspecting and storing material, facility and other costs, and is allocated to cost of product revenue based on the proportion of indirect labor which supported production activities. The cost of product revenue can fluctuate significantly from period to period, depending on the product mix and volume, the level of manufacturing overhead expense and the volume of direct material purchased.
Cost of Engineering Services Revenues
Cost of contract revenue includes both the direct and allocated indirect costs of performing on contracts and producing prototype units. Direct costs include labor, materials and other costs incurred directly in producing prototype units and product deliveries or performing on a contract. Indirect costs include labor and other costs associated with operating our research and development department based on the level of effort supporting the development activity. Cost of contract revenue is determined by the level of direct and indirect costs incurred, which can fluctuate substantially from period to period.
Fixed Assets  
Fixed assets are stated at cost. Depreciation of fixed assets is provided for using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Computers and Purchased Software
3 years
Leasehold Improvements
Lesser of expected life or lease term
Manufacturing Equipment
5 years
3 years
Furniture and Equipment
5 years
Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Asset betterments are capitalized and depreciated over their expected useful life.
Patents and Trademarks
The Company capitalizes the costs of obtaining its patents and registration of trademarks. Such costs are accumulated and capitalized during the filing periods, which can take several years to complete. Successful applications that result in the granting of a patent or trademark are then amortized over 15 years on a straight-line basis. Unsuccessful applications are written off and expensed in the fiscal period where the application is abandoned or discontinued.
Software Development Costs
The Company capitalizes the costs of obtaining or developing its software once technological feasibility has been determined by management. Such costs are accumulated and capitalized and projects can take several years to complete. Unsuccessful or discontinued software projects are written off and expensed in the fiscal period where the software development effort is abandoned or discontinued. Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a computer software product are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product. Once technological feasibility is established, all software costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Judgment is required in determining when technological feasibility of a product is established. Once the product is available for general release, accumulated costs are amortized over the life of the asset. The amortization of these costs is included in cost of revenue over the estimated life of the products, which currently is estimated as 3 years using a straight-line basis.
The Company capitalizes the costs of acquiring licenses and prepaid royalties. They are amortized on either a per unit basis or straight line over the life of the license. In some cases, future royalties are subject to annual limits.
Long-Lived Assets
The Company at least annually assesses all of its long-lived assets for impairment when events or circumstances indicate their carrying amounts may not be recoverable, in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360-10, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets.” There was no impairment charge in 2017. In 2016, an impairment charge of $20,506 was recorded related to abandoned patents and trademarks. In 2015, an impairment charge of $13,222 was recorded related to abandoned patents and trademarks.   
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred consistent with the guidance of FASB ASC Topic 730, “Research and Development,” and include employee related costs, office expenses, third party design and engineering services, and new product prototyping costs. Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a computer software product are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Amounts charged to customers and costs incurred by the Company related to shipping and handling are included in net sales and cost of sales, respectively.
Provision for Future Warranty Costs
The Company provides for the estimated returns under warranty and the costs of fulfilling our obligations under product warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized. The Company estimates the costs based on historical and projected product failure rates, historical and projected repair costs, and knowledge of specific product failures (if any). The specific warranty terms and conditions vary depending upon the country in which we do business, but generally include parts and labor over a period generally ranging from one to two years from the date of product shipment. The Company provides a reserve for expected future warranty returns at the time of product shipment or produces over-builds to cover replacements. We regularly reevaluate our estimates to assess the adequacy of the recorded warranty liabilities and adjust the amounts as necessary each quarter end, based on historical experience of warranty claims and costs.
Customer Deposits
Customer deposits represent money the Company has received in advance of providing a product or engineering services to a customer. All such deposits are short term in nature as the Company delivers the product, unfulfilled portions or engineering services to the customer before the end of its next annual fiscal period. These deposits are credited to the customer against product deliveries or at the completion of the customer’s order.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and recorded in “Selling and Marketing” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 amounted to $1,386,977, $1,279,998 and $432,325, respectively.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740-10, “Income Taxes.” Accordingly, the Company provides deferred income tax assets and liabilities based on the estimated future tax effects of differences between the financial and tax bases of assets and liabilities based on currently enacted tax laws. A valuation allowance is established for deferred tax assets in amounts for which realization is not considered more likely than not to occur.
The Company reports any interest and penalties accrued relating to uncertain income tax positions as a component of the income tax provision.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net income (loss) less accrued dividends on any outstanding preferred stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share calculations reflect the assumed exercise of all dilutive employee stock options and warrants applying the treasury stock method promulgated by FASB ASC Topic 260, “Earnings Per Share” and the conversion of any outstanding convertible preferred shares or notes payable that are-in-the-money, applying the as-if-converted method. However, if the assumed exercise of stock options and warrants and the conversion of any preferred shares or convertible notes payable are anti-dilutive, basic and diluted earnings per share are the same for all periods. As a result of the net losses generated in 2017, 2016 and 2015, all outstanding instruments would be antidilutive. As of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, there were 7,657,756, 7,227,738 and 7,475,623 respectively, of common stock share equivalents potentially issuable under convertible debt agreements, options, conversion of preferred shares (excluding accrued dividends), and warrants that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
The Company accounts for share-based compensation to employees and directors in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718 “Compensation Stock Expense,” which requires that compensation expense be recognized in the consolidated financial statements for share-based awards based on the grant-date fair value using a Black-Scholes valuation model of those awards. The Company uses the fair market value of our common stock on the date of each option grant based on the market price of the Company’s common shares. Stock-based compensation expense includes estimates of forfeitures, option lives, and stock price volatility, and is recognized over the requisite service period of the awards on a straight-line or graded vesting basis, which is generally commensurate with the vesting term. Stock-based compensation expense associated with stock option grants for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 was $ 1,355,522, $756,928 and $568,848, respectively. The Company issues new shares upon stock option exercises.
Derivative Liability and Fair Value Measurements
FASB ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in generally accepted accounting principles, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 clarifies that fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. ASC 820 permits an entity to measure certain financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings each period. In accordance with ASC 815-10-25 Derivatives and Hedging we measured the derivative liabilities using a Monte Carlo Options Lattice pricing model at their issuance date and at each subsequent reporting date. Accordingly, at the end of each quarterly reporting date, the derivative fair market value is remeasured and adjusted to current market value. Derivatives that have more than one year remaining in their life are shown as long term.
Significant unobservable inputs are used in the fair value measurement of the Company’s derivative liability. The primary input factors driving the economic or fair value of the derivative liabilities related to the warrants and convertible notes are the stock price of the Company’s shares, the price volatility of the shares, reset events, and exercise behavior. An important valuation input factor used in determining fair value was the expected volatility of observed share prices and the probability of projected resets in warrant exercise and note conversion prices from financing events before each security’s maturity. For exercise behavior, the Company assumed that without a target price of 2 times the projected reset price or higher, the holders of the warrants and convertible notes would hold to maturity. In determining the fair value of the derivatives it was assumed that the Company’s business would be conducted as a going concern and that holding to maturity was reasonable. Further, the January 2, 2015 Series A Preferred financing reduced the expected probability to near zero for price resets from financing events.
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC Topic 820 establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (level 3 measurements). These tiers include:
Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets;
Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and
Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions, such as valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815).This ASU requires that when determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, an entity should not consider the down round feature. The ASU also recharacterizes as a scope exception the indefinite deferral available to private companies with mandatorily redeemable financial instrument and certain noncontrolling interests, which does not have an accounting effect but addresses navigational concerns within the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The provisions of the ASU related to down rounds are effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. We do not expect the implementation of this standard to have a material effect on our financial statements.
In May 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. The new standard is effective for annual reporting periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-09 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures because we do not anticipate any changes to our share-based payment plans.
In November 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-18 (ASU 2016-18), Restricted Cash. The standard requires restricted cash and cash equivalents to be included with cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. The new standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The new guidance shall be applied using a retrospective approach. We do not expect the implementation of this standard to have a material effect on our financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-02 (ASU 2016-02), Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and lease liability in the balance sheet for all leases, including operating leases, with terms of more than twelve months. Recognition, measurement and presentation of expenses and cash flows from a lease by a lessee have not significantly changed from previous guidance. The amendments also require qualitative disclosures along with specific quantitative disclosures. The new guidance will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted. The amendments must be applied on a modified retrospective basis. We anticipate the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our financial statements. While we are continuing to assess all the potential impacts of the standard, we currently believe the most significant impact relates to our accounting for our office lease. Under the new guidance, the net present value of the obligation for our office lease will appear on the balance sheet. Currently, it is classified as an operating lease and payments are expensed in the periods incurred. 
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09 (Topic 606) "Revenue from Contracts with Customers." Topic 606 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605 “Revenue Recognition” (Topic 605), and requires entities to recognize revenues when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. We adopted Topic 606 as of January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective transition method. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 will be presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting treatment under Topic 605. We recorded a net increase to opening retained earnings of less than $100,000, net of tax, as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adopting Topic 606, with the impact primarily related to our post contract support (PCS deferred revenue).
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09 Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting which amends the current stock compensation guidance. The amendments simplify the accounting for the taxes related to stock based compensation, including adjustments to how excess tax benefits and a company's payments for tax withholdings should be classified. Under this new guidance, entities must elect whether to account for forfeitures of share-based payments by (1) recognizing forfeitures of awards as they occur or (2) apply an estimated forfeiture rate, as is currently required. The standard is effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We have adopted this standard for the year ended December 31, 2017 and have elected to account for forfeitures as they occur. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-17, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. ASU 2015-17 simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes by requiring that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. The standard is effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods and may be applied either prospectively to all deferred tax liabilities and assets or retrospectively to all periods presented. We have adopted this standard for the year ended December 31, 2017 on a prospective basis; therefore, all deferred tax assets and liabilities have been classified as noncurrent in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets. Noncurrent deferred tax assets and noncurrent deferred tax liabilities are included in other assets and other long-term liabilities, respectively, in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.  As of December 31, 2017, the Company had a full valuation allowance against all net deferred tax assets, as such the adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
There are no other recent accounting pronouncements that are expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.